The conservation status of Scorzonera nivalis, an endemic species of Iran

Document Type : Rare and Endangered Plant Species of Iran


1 Assistant Prof., Forests and Rangelands Research Department, Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.

2 BSc. in Agricultural Engineering, Payame-Noor University, Sanandaj Branch

3 Senior Research Expert, College of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

4 Ph.D. student, College of Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

5 Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran

6 Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran.



Scorzonera nivalis Boiss. & Hausskn (Asteraceae) is one of the narrowest endemic species in Iran's flora, restricted to the Schahu and Avroman Mountains. IUCN criteria and GeoCAT data (EOO= 339.736 km2; AOO= 4.41 km2) classify this species as Critically Endangered (CR). This species was not collected after it was introduced 156 years ago by Boissier and Haussknecht until 2013 when it was collected for the second time from Schahu Mountain. Later studies conducted in Kurdistan Province added other populations from the Avroaman Mountains to the samples of this valuable species. The most efficient way to protect this species is to help its propagation through seeding and sowing in other similar habitats in the Schahu and Avroman Mountains. Introducing Schahu Mountain as a protected area by the Department of Environment of Iran, preventing livestock from entering the top of the mountain, collecting seeds, and storing them in the Natural Resources Gene Bank of Iran are other effective ways to protect this valuable reserve.


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