‌The role of grazing management in the symbiosis of Salsola laricina Pall. with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Document Type : Scientific Letters


1 PhD student of combat desertification, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., Department of Afforestation in Arid Lands, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

3 Associate Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Prof., Department of management of Arid Lands, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

5 Assistant Prof., Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran


The lack of a grazing system management program along with other natural and human factors in the country has led to the degradation of rangelands to a large extent. From a new perspective, the lack of grazing management, as an indirect consequence, but with a key role, can have negative effects on useful soil microorganisms, in particular, plant symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this case, due to the sever imbalance between plant and fungus, the reclamation of rangelands with the help of symbiotic soil fungi will be difficult. To investigate the effects of grazing management on AMF symbiosis with S. laricina in three sites of heavy grazing, light grazing, and no grazing, the root and soil were completely randomly sampled around the rhizosphere. The mean of root colonization percentage and soil spores frequency, after assurance of homogeneity of variance and normal mean of data, were compared with the Duncan's analysis of variance at 95% confidence level. Early grazing and the lack of grazing systems management are among the factors that greatly reduce the fungus symbiosis with the roots of plants. Over time, the loss of this important ecosystem chain along with other factors, such as climate change and mismanagement of natural areas, has led to the decreased number of Salsola individuals. This results in changes in species composition and abundance as well as the presence of unpalatable and invasive species, which ultimately leads to the rangeland degradation.


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